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Blowing pressure dependent synchronization in the Zummâra (Abstract)
Type of publication: Inproceedings
Citation: blassziemer
Publication status: Published
Booktitle: Int. Conf. of Students of Systematic Musicology (SysMus)
Year: 2015
Month: September
Pages: 38
Location: Leipzig
Address: Leipzig
URL: https://biblio.ugent.be/public...
Abstract: This paper discusses the influence of blowing pressure changes on the reeds of the Zummâra abâuia. The Zummâra is a double clarinet consisting of two parallel and firm- ly connected pipes, each with four symmetrically placed finger holes. The instrument is idioglottal, meaning the reeds are cut from the tube. When blown at pressure levels be- low a certain threshold both pipes produce the same pitch. Exceedance of this thresh- old results in a sudden pitch shift. Each pipe then produces its own pitch, one below the low pressure pitch and one above it. Since the pitch of the pipes depends on the reeds, their excitation behavior and the radiated sound was analyzed. In order to com- pare each state of behavior an experiment was set up to record the reed motion and the sound radiation simultaneously. We utilized a high-speed camera to track the reeds and make their motion visible. Sound was recorded using a microphone array of eight om- nidirectional microphones, one for each finger hole. Analysis was based on a 3.7 s record comprising one sudden pitch shift. The high-speed recording shows that the on- sets of both pipes are simultaneous. Spectral analysis of the low pressure state reveals harmonic spectra of the reed motion and the radiated sound, each with a fundamental of approximately 630 Hz. Above threshold each pipe has its own fundamental of 604 Hz and 651 Hz respectively. Obviously the Zummâra allows for two distinct regimes: a unisono and a detuned regime, with the latter being culturally desired. The transition between the regimes is controlled by blowing pressure.
Authors Blaß, Michael
Ziemer, Tim