[BibTeX] [RIS]
Source Width in Music Production. Methods in Stereo, Ambisonics, and Wave Field Synthesis
Type of publication: Incollection
Citation: ziemerspacemusic
Publication status: Published
Booktitle: Studies in Musical Acoustics and Psychoacoustics
Series: Current Research in Systematic Musicology
Volume: 4
Chapter: 10
Year: 2017
Pages: 399--440
Publisher: Springer
Address: Cham
ISBN: 978-3-319-47291-1
URL: http://link.springer.com/chapt...
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47292-8_10
Abstract: Source width of musical instruments, measured in degrees, is a matter of source extent and the distance of the observer. In contrast to that, perceived source width is a matter of psychological organization of sound. It is influenced by the sound radiation characteristics of the source and by the room acoustics and restricted by masking and by localization accuracy. In this chapter perceived source width in psychoacoustics and apparent source width in room acoustical research are revisited. Source width in music recording and production practice in stereo and surround as well as in ambisonics and wave field synthesis are addressed. After the review of the literature an investigation is introduced. The radiation characteristics of 10 musical instruments are measured at 128 angles and the radiated sound is propagated to potential listening positions at 3 different distances. Here, monaural and binaural sound quantities are calculated. By means of multiple linear regression, the physical source extent is predicted by sound these field quantities. The combination of weighted interaural phase differences in the sensitive frequency region together with the number of partials in the quasi-stationary part of instrumental sounds shows significant correlation with the actual source extent of musical instruments. The results indicate that these parameters might have a relevant effect on perceived source extent as well. Consequently, acoustic control over these parameters will increase psychoacoustic control concerning perceived source extent in audio systems.
Keywords: apparent source width, higher order ambisonics, music production, musical acoustics, Spatial Audio, wave field synthesis
Authors Ziemer, Tim
Editors Schneider, Albrecht